Permissions updates in Android 11

Android 11 gives users the ability to specify more granular permissions for location, microphone, and camera. This version of Android also updates the permissions model for reading information related to phone numbers.

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One-time permissions

In Android 11, whenever your app requests a permission related to location, microphone, or camera, the user-facing permissions dialog contains an option called Only this time. If the user selects this option in the dialog, your app is granted a temporary one-time permission.

Your app can then access the related data for a period of time that depends on your app's behavior and the user's actions:

  • While your app's activity is visible, your app can access the data.
  • If the user brings your app to the background, your app can continue to access the data for a short period of time.
  • If you launch a foreground service while the activity is visible, and the user then moves your app to the background, your app can continue to access the data until that foreground service stops.
  • If the user revokes the one-time permission, such as in system settings, your app cannot access the data, regardless of whether you launched a foreground service. As with any permission, if the user revokes your app's one-time permission, your app's process terminates.

Note: If your app already follows best practices related to permissions, you don't need to change your app to support one-time permissions. In particular, make sure you always check that your app has a permission before trying to access information that's guarded by that permission, and complete the following process if your app is requesting the permission for the first time, or if the user has revoked the permission:

  1. Call shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(). If this method returns true, show a UI element in your app that explains to the user why your app needs the permission.
  2. Request the permission.

Dialog shown when requesting permission again

When the user next opens your app and your app then requests a permission related to location, microphone, or camera again, the user is prompted again. Table 1 shows several examples of the dialog that the user might see:

Table 1. Types of dialogs that user sees when requesting a one-time permission again
Target SDK version Type of permission requested Dialog that user sees
Android 10 or higher ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION Figure 1
Android 10 ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION, followed by ACCESS_BACKGROUND_LOCATION Figure 2
Android 10 or lower All available location permissions simultaneously Figure 3
Dialog overlays the app content
Figure 1. Permissions dialog that includes Only this time option.
The second dialog presents a link called Allow in settings
Figure 2. Sequence of dialogs that user sees if an app targets Android 10 and requests foreground and background location permissions separately.
The first dialog presents a link called Allow in settings
Figure 3. Sequence of dialogs that user sees if an app targets Android 10 or lower and requests all available location permissions together.

Permission dialog visibility

Android 11 discourages repeated requests for permissions in a specific permission group. If the user taps Deny twice for a specific permission during your app's lifetime of installation on a device, this action implies "don't ask again" for the corresponding permission group.

The system also defines behavior for responding to actions that emulate a tap of the Deny option:

  • If the user presses the back button to dismiss the permission dialog, this doesn't count as a "deny" action.
  • If the user is taken to system settings from your app using requestPermissions() and then presses the back button, this does count as a "deny" action.

Phone numbers

Android 11 changes the phone-related permission that your app uses when reading phone numbers.

If your app targets Android 11 and needs to access the phone number APIs shown in the following list, you must request the READ_PHONE_NUMBERS permission, instead of the READ_PHONE_STATE permission.

If your app declares READ_PHONE_STATE to call methods other than the ones in the previous list, you can continue to request READ_PHONE_STATE across all Android versions. If you use the READ_PHONE_STATE permission only for the methods in the previous list, however, update your manifest file as follows:

  1. Change your declaration of READ_PHONE_STATE so that your app uses the permission only on Android 10 (API level 29) and lower.
  2. Add the READ_PHONE_NUMBERS permission.

The following manifest declaration snippet demonstrates this process:

<manifest>
    <!-- Grants the READ_PHONE_STATE permission only on devices that run
         Android 10 (API level 29) and lower. -->
    <uses-permission android:name="READ_PHONE_STATE"
                     android:maxSdkVersion="29" />
    <uses-permission android:name="READ_PHONE_NUMBERS" />
</manifest>